Cryptococcosis is a pathology caused by a fungus called Cryptococcus neoformans. It represents the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system in individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, affecting 11% of the individuals in this group. Immunocompetent patients are also victims of this infection. In immunodeficient patients, the usual neurological impairment is subacute meningitis associated with multifocal dilatation of Virchow-Robin perivascular spaces. Immunocompetents are more frequently affected in the parenchyma with formation of fungal abscesses called cryptococcomas. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive in cases of cryptococcal meningitis, but, in cases of immunodepression, normal examination is possible because of scarcity of the inflammatory process. The meningeal enhancement is characterized in the FLAIR and T1-weighted images with contrast. There are four imaging patterns described: cryptococcomas, enlarged perivascular spaces, leptomeningeal and parenchymal nodules and a mixed pattern. Many conditions may simulate the radiological findings being necessary knowledge about them.
Published on: June 24, 2020
Citation: Vasconcelos CRB, Lucato LT, Godoy LFS, Frasseto F, Goldman C, et al. 2020. Neurocryptococcosis: A Pictorial Review. J Med Imaging Case Rep 4(2): 43-45.